STEMxm Retired Podcast Notes

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Show Notes from the STEMxm Podcast (retired)

STEMxm Episode 1 - 

Interview with Jill Tietjen, Electrical Engineer

We discussed understanding the value of infrastructure - roads, stoplights, airports, water system, electricity.  We didn't discuss IBM specifically, but they are interested in working on "smart infrastructure". You can check out a few of their videos on this here.

Places Jill worked:
Duke Energy

Mobil

Books by (or co-authored by) Jill Tietjen:

Women In Engineering(from IEEE)

Keys to Engineering Success

Her Story: A Timeline of Women Who Changed America

Engineering Women: Revisiting Women's Scientific Achievements and Impacts

STEMxm Episode 2 - 

Interview with Lynzie Nebel, Plastics Engineer

Lynzie Nebel is the first Plastics Engineer we interviewed on STEMxm.  Here are some notes regarding organizations and resources we discussed in Episode 2.

Occupational Outlook handbook for Materials Engineering/Science Occupations

Here's a cheesy video about plastic extrusionClick Here

Here's an equally cheesy video about injection molding plasticClick Here

Check out this short clip to see a graphic depiction of how plastic bottles are made by injection molding: Click here

Plastics Engineering University Programs

Penn State Behrend Plastics Engineering program

Pennsylvania College of Technology Plastics/Polymer program

Pittsburg State - Kansas Plastics Engineering program

University of Massachusetts Lowell - Plastics Engineering program

University of Wisconsin Stout Plastics Engineering program

Western Washington University Plastics Engineering program

Ferris State University Plastics program - not ABET accredited as of mid 2016-

Graduate Plastics Degrees

Southern Mississippi Polymer School

Case Western Reserve University - Polymer Graduate Program

Link to the company Lynize worked for at time of recording MTD MicroMolding

Organizations to check out

Society of Plastics Engineers (SPE) - You can contact them to find out more information about careers in Plastics and to ask for insights on the different plastics engineering degree programs around the country.

Society of Women Engineers (SWE) - A great resource for STEM advocacy and connecting with women in Engineering.

Advocates for Plastics Careers (APC) - This is the non-profit organization that Lynzie founded. They are working on building this up. Those who work through this organization would be happy to help answer your questions on Plastics Engineering careers.

To contact Lynzie Nebel directly, send her a tweet at @LRCollard

STEMxm Episode 3 - 

Interview with Jessica Rodriguez-Gomez, Transportation (Civil) Engineer

(Fair warning - there's some dogs barking in the background at one point in this episode)

Jessica's Bio

Jessica Rodriguez-Gomez graduated from the University of Texas El Paso where she earned a BS in Civil Engineering in 1985 and a Master of Science in Civil Engineering (with a focus on Transportation) in 1991. In 1985, she was the only female graduate in her class major.  Jessica has over 30 years of experience in transportation, primarily with roadway design. Jessica started her career working for TXDOT, where she worked as the only female engineer in the district for years. She currently works as a Senior Project Manager for Freese and Nichols, Inc.

The Episode

Something I want to highlight here is what Jessica described about her background at the beginning of the podcast. Neither of her parents went to college. She has an older sibling who went to college ahead of her, but he studied music. The reason Jessica went into engineering as a major is because her guidance counselor pointed out her strengths in mathematics and science and therefore, suggested Engineering as an option to her. This is incredibly poignant. Guidance Counselors, Teachers, and Parents can have a huge influence on a young person's path. Also, for any young person reading this, I want to remind you that you have it in you. You can accomplish academically what you set your mind to.

Another important highlight from this episode - Finding out what you don't want to do is just as important as finding out what you want to do. Jessica highlighted this with respect to earning a Masters degree - better to learn through some work experience before finding a specialty area that you earn a focused, research degree in.

Towards the middle of the episode, Jessica described her perspective on the difference between working for government and working for a consulting firm. For a little more insight into this you can also check out the short video I made about job options in Engineering here.

Things Jessica said to try and learn (or classes to take) while you're still in school:

  • Business Basics
  • How and engineering budget is put together
  • How to put together a construction schedule
  • Classes on Project or Construction Management
  • At a consulting internship - ask to listen in on marketing calls/meetings

You can also learn more about the sub disciplines of Civil Engineering (like Transportation) careers by visiting the Occupational Outlook Handbook.

STEMxm Episode 4 - 

Interview with Maia Weinstock, Science Writer

*Update* - Maia's LEGOset submission was selected by LEGO for creation!

Maia's Bio

Maia Weinstockis an editor, writer, and producer with 17+ years of experience in science and children's media. She serves currently as the Deputy Editor of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology News Office. Previously, Maia worked as Editorial Director and News Director at BrainPOP and as an editor and reporter for several national science magazines and websites.

Maia is a guest blogger on cultural aspects of women in the STEM fields at Scientific American. She is the creator of the Women of NASA LEGO set, a finalist in the LEGO Ideas contestwith a chance for worldwide production; Scitweeps, a photography project depicting scientists and science popularizers as minifigures; and the Legal Justice League, an original LEGO project depicting the first four female justices of the U.S. Supreme Court. She is also a co-author of A Passion For Science: Stories of Discovery and Invention.

In recent years, Maia has led efforts to increase the participation and representation of women on Wikipedia. Maia is a seasoned social media manager and coach; for two years she oversaw the Institute-level Twitter, Facebook, and Google Plus accounts for MIT and continues to provide content and strategy for these and other MIT social accounts. She is also a member of the National Association of Science Writers and the New England Science Writers.  (Source: Maia Weinstock, LinkedIn)  You can follow Maia on Twitter by visiting here.

Stuff we discussed on Episode 4

Space.com– Astronomy and Space News

Brain Pop

Check out Maia’s lego creations on her Flickr Page

Submit your own Lego ideas. Learn more here.

Wikipedia Women in Red Project

A Passion for Science – Stories of Discovery and Invention  (Co-authored by Miaa Weinstock)

The Science Writer’s Handbook(Maia mentioned from NASW)

 

Maia's Writing

Universe Unseen

Lego to Produce Female Scientist Mini-Figure Set

Lego Adds More Women in Science to Its Lineup

Gone in 2014: Remembering 10 Notable Women in Science

Scene at MIT: Margaret Hamilton's Apollo Code

STEMxm Episode 5 - 

Interview with KT Moran, Geochemist

National Association of State Boards of Geology - ASBOG

Association for Women Geoscientists - AWG

Association for Women in Science - AWIS

The Geological Society of America

American Geophysical Union - AGU

Geology Field Camp (general information)

HAZWOPR training - This was mentioned as a potential way to set yourself apart from other geoscience candidates when you're starting out. I've linked to the OSHA site for more info, but before opting for an expensive online or in person HAZWOPR course, be sure to check your university or local community college to see if they offer a cheaper 40-hr HAZWOPR course.

National Oceanic Atmospheric and Atmospheric Administration - NOAA - This is the government entity KT mentioned that she wish she'd applied to when younger. You can search for NOAA job openings at USAjobs.

Research on Women in Science & Gender Bias

Women in the Geosciences: Practical, Positive Practices Towards Parityby Maryanne Holmes

Women and Pre-Tenure Scholarly Productivity in International Studies: An Investigation into the Leaky Career Pipelineby Kathleen J. Hancock, Matthew A. Baum, and Marijke Breuning

Science faculty's subtle gender biases favor male students by  C.A. Moss-Racusina, J.F. Dovidiob, V.L. Brescollc, M.J. Grahama, and J. Handelsman

Gender and Letters of Recommendation for Academia: Agentic and Communal Differences by J.M. Madera, M.R. Hebl, and R.C. Martin

Beyond Gender Schemas: Improving the Advancement of Women in Academia by V. Valian

Personal finance books recommended for college students/recent grads

Automatic Wealth for Grads by Michael Masterson - There are lots of gimmicky books out there about finance. If you're looking for a no non-sense guide, I think this book is a great place to start (especially if you are new to having serious conversations about personal finance, and wealth building).

STEMxm Episode 6 - 

Interview with Holly Nelson, Environmental Scientist

Holly earned a Bachelor of Science in Natural Resources and Conservation from the University of Florida. You can learn more about that program here. Holly has experience working both for consulting businesses and regulatory agencies as an environmental scientist. Examples of regulatory agencies include the Environmental Protection Agency (Federal Level) and the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP).

Holly had a great recommendation for ways to think about positioning yourself for the type of environmental science career you may want. She recommended to go out on Monster or Indeed and finding jobs that you think would be cool.  So maybe try searching some keywords that align with your interests like - Environmental, Groundwater, Remediation.  Then, look through some of those jobs' descriptions. Pick the ones you think are the coolest and most interesting, and then look at their requirements. Then you can reverse engineer the education and type of experience you will need to land that job in the future. 🙂

Info on wastes the EPA requires to be cleaned up

EPA Resource about Underground Storage Tanks

Learn about Phase 1 Site Assessments here

Groundwater remediation (groundwater extraction and treatment)

In Situ Groundwater Treatment

Microbes & Molasses for Groundwater Remediation

 

Here are some organizations that you could learn about more environmental science career info from (keep in mind, many will have local chapters in major cities).

National Association of Environmental Professionals

The Air and Wast Management Association

Association for Environmental studies and Sciences

Ecological Society of America

Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry

STEMxm Episode 7 - 
Interview with Dr. Corrie Moreau, Evolutionary Biologist & Entomologist
Dr. Corrie Moreau holds Bachelor and Masters degrees from San Francisco State University. She earned a PhD at Harvard. Currently, Dr. Moreau is a Curator at the Chicago Field Museum of Natural History, and she holds a faculty position at the University of Chicago. Dr. Moreau's professional interests include the origin, evolution, and adaptation of species and maintenance of symbioses; read more about how research interests and pursuits here.
Women in Science group at the Natural Field Museum
PBS - Still airing great shows where kids can learn about interesting careers in science, etc. 🙂
Brain Scoop stuff featuring Dr. Corrie Moreau
Terms
Up-regulating (as in up-regulating the host's diet)
What Corrie was studying at the time of the interview: Turtle Ants or Cephalotes
Corrie's favorite - Caphalotes Varians
Alexander Wild Photography - Turtle Ants
STEMxm Episode 8- 
Interview with Kayla Carter, BioMedical Engineer
Kayla Carter is a Healthcare Technology Consultant with expertise in the development of electro-mechanical medical device (inclusive of software) and medical device audits. She earned a BS in Biomedical Engineering from Syracuse University, and an MS in Healthcare Technology Management from Marquette University. A the time of podcast publication, Kayla is pursuing a PhD at Purdue Universitywhile running her own medical device consulting company.
You can reach out to Kayla on Twitter!
Some Useful Links:
Biomedical Engineering as a Career Path in the Occupational Outlook Handbook
Healthcare Technologies ManagementProgram at Marquette University
Hereis a video about the brain implant for the paralyzed patient to help them move their hands that Kayla discussed (she worked on this while at Batelle). Super cool!!
STEMxm Episode 9- 
Bias, Sexism and Bullying in STEM post-election, Discussion and Commentary 

Mariel Kolker: Ms. Kolker earned a degree in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Rutgers in 1987. In her early career, she worked for Con Edison in manholes, inside transformers, power plants, substations, and the Emergency Control Center. She went on to earn an MBA in Finance from Fordham in 1995. She worked in finance for Con Edison, and in marketing and operations for PSE&G.  She transitioned to a teaching role in the year 2000.

Today, Ms. Kolker teaches at Morristown High School.  Prior to this, she taught physics & engineering at Watchung Hills Regional High School and Morris Hills Regional High School, having had babies in between each.

Ms. Kolker strives to bring real-world practicality to the teaching of both physics and engineering.  She focuses on skills that are relevant and desirable in the workplace.

You can find her blog here.

Dr. Jack Gilbert:  Professor Jack A Gilbert earned his Ph.D. from Unilever and Nottingham University, UK in 2002, and received his postdoctoral training at Queens University, Canada. He subsequently returned to the UK in 2005 to Plymouth Marine Laboratory as a senior scientist until his move to Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Chicago in 2010. Currently, Professor Gilbert is in Department of Surgery at the University of Chicago, and is Group Leader for Microbial Ecology at Argonne National Laboratory. He is also Associate Director of the Institute of Genomic and Systems Biology, Research Associate at the Field Museum of Natural History, and Senior Scientist at the Marine Biological Laboratory. Dr. Gilbert uses molecular analysis to test fundamental hypotheses in microbial ecology. He has authored more than 200 peer reviewed publications and book chapters on metagenomics and approaches to ecosystem ecology. In 2014 he was recognized on Crain’s Business Chicago’s 40 Under 40 List, and in 2015 he was listed as one of the 50 most influential scientists by Business Insider, and in the Brilliant Ten by Popular Scientist.

 

Resources & Articles

Growth Mindset versus Fixed Mindset~ Carol S. Dweck, PhD

Gender Gap in STEM majors linked to high school job plans

Michelle Dickinson is Nano Girl on YouTube; her TED talk

Unconscious Bias

Sexism in Science: Science postdoc told to grin and bear prof's wandering eye

Thoughts on STEM Diversityby Dr. Jonathan Eisen

The Mistrust of Science- A New Yorker article by Atul Gawande

We Will Not Mourn, We Will Organize- Gloria Steinem

STEMxm Episode 10- 
Transportation Engineering in NYC with Patricia Valoy

Patricia (Patty Valoy) is a Latina activist, blogger, and an Engineer/Project Manager promoting STEM education for women and underrepresented minorities. She uses her experiences as a Latina and an engineer to advocate and inspire girls and minorities considering careers in the fields of STEM. She earned a BS in Civil Engineering from Columbia Universityin 2008. Her work mostly revolves around the Latino/a community, feminism, cultural identity, gender stereotypes, and workplace sexism.

Patty's past presentations include:

  • Women in STEM Fields panel presentation, SUNY Fredonia, March 2016.
  • Latino/a Feminism and Ethno-Racial Identity presentation, Kellogg Community College, March 2016.
  • Transnational/Global Feminism, Global Identity presentation, Cornell College, January 2016.
  • Gender Bias, Sexism, and Stereotypes in STEM presentation, Xavier University, October 2015.
  • The Role of Feminism in Fighting Sexism in STEM Fields presentation, Dickenson College, February 2015.
  • Gender Bias, Sexism, and Stereotypes in STEM presentation, Carnegie Mellon University, February 2015.

Patty on Twitter

Patty in the Washington Post: This Latina engineer owns her feminism, one mansplainer at a time

Patty on Everyday Feminism

4 Reasons Why Making STEM Pink to Get Girls Interested is Absurdwith Patty Valoy

Patty on Ravishly

STEMxm Episode 11- 
Plastics Engineering with Jen Schmidt

Jen Schmidtwent to Pen State Behrend, which is the Erie campus. She studied Plastics Engineering technology and graduated in the year 2000. At the time of recording, Jen worked for Beaumont Technologiesas a Design Engineer. She is also an expert certified Autodeskmold flows instructor, and she’s been doing that for 10 about years.

Stuff we discussed:

Mold Flow by Autodesk

Finite Element Method(Analysis)

The Laundry commercial...

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xogBz71IHAo

Society of Plastics Engineers (SPE) - You can contact them to find out more information about careers in Plastics and to ask for insights on the different plastics engineering degree programs around the country.

STEMxm Episode 12- 
Learning to Love Mathematics with Vanessa Vakharia

Vanessa's Website: The Math Guru| Math Guru Facebook Page| Vanessa on Twitter  | Instagram

Read Vanessa's Thesis: Imagining a World Where Paris Hilton Loves Math

The JC Penney Shirt

Vanessa on She Does the City

Vanessa on SavageOM

STEMxm Episode 13- 
Planetary Science & Lunar Geology with Sarah Noble, NASA

Sarah's profile at NASA| Sarah on Twitter| Sarah's Interplanetary Art

A closer look at Planetary Geologywith Sarah Noble

Lunar and Planetary Institute- Lunar and Planetary Conference that Sarah mentioned on the podcast is connected to this

Division for Planetary Scientists- American Astronomical Society

Association for Women Geoscientists

 

NASA Missions that Sarah is (or has) working on:

LADEE- Lunar Atmosphere Dust & Environmental Explorer

Mars 2020

 

Other Stuff Sarah is Responsible for:

PDART- Planetary Data Archiving, Restoration, and Tools

PSTAR- Planetary Science and Technology from Analog Research

STEMxm Episode 14- 
GeoScience with Clay Expert, Dr. Mary Anne Holmes

Mary Anne Holmes' UNL Profile  | University of Nebraska Lincoln

Women in the Geosciences: Practical, Positive Practices Toward Parityby Mary Anne Holmes

Core Sample on Wikipedia

Interesting Vid about Core Sampling

Dr. Holmes mentioned several different types of clay minerals. To learn more about clay minerals, you can start your search here.

Where are the Women Geoscience Professors?

ADVANCE by NSF - Institutional Transformation (IT) Award

Gender differences in recommendation letters for postdoctoral fellowships in geoscienceby Kuheli Dutt (Summary)

Environmental Justice

What is Remote Sensingby NOAA

Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE)by NASA - Groundwater modelling data

STEMxm Episode 15- 
Coder & CorgiBytes CEO, Andrea Goulet

CorgiBytes| Technical? Non-Technical? Both!| Andrea's LinkedIn

Graphene

Girl talk barbie🙁

The Project Management tool we discussed = Slack

The Movie - Inception

One of the Places Andrea spoke at - Dot Net Fringe

Here are some resources about (and how to overcome) Imposter Syndrome:

Afraid of Being 'Found Out'? How to Overcome Imposter Syndrome

  • Learning to Deal with the Imposter Syndrome
  • Another take on Slate

Sources for beginning your journey to learning code:

Andrea mentioned research about how women have not historically applied for positions where they don't meet or exceed allthe criteria. Here is some related research:

STEMxm Episode 16- 

Who was on the episode:

Avery Bangtrained as a geo-technical engineer at the University of Colorado Boulder before joining Bridges to Prosperity where she now serves as Executive Director. Bridges to Prosperity is a non-profit organization that builds
cable-stayed pedestrian bridges throughout the developing world. With design, program development and construction experience in nearly a dozen countries, she has more than doubled the size of the operation. When describing what
she does, Avery asks people to imagine what it would have been like for them to get to their elementary school if the infrastructure they had—bridges, roads, etc—didn’t exist. She explains that she helps people in the developing world build projects that many people often take for granted.

Menzer Pehlivanis a geotechnical engineer specializing in earthquake engineering. Named one of the “2016 New Faces of Engineering” by the American Society of Civil Engineers, Menzer was inspired to build more resilient communities and reduce the risk associated with earthquakes following the 1999 Kocaeli Earth- quake in Turkey,which she experienced as a young girl. She received her Ph.D. degree from the University of Texas at Austin in 2013 and has worked on numerous geotechnical and earthquake projects in the U.S., Canada and Mexico. She currently works as a geotechnical engineer on critical infrastructure projects at CH2M in Seattle.

Thea Sahris an award-winning producer of national education outreach initiatives and messaging campaigns for multimedia projects. She has over 25 years experience at such organizations as the Museum of Science (Boston), WGBH Educational Foundation, and am now at DiscoverE. She has been a successful team leader and creator of evergreen resources that teach science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) concepts. She focuses, in particular, on dispelling stereotypes about engineering and science, and encouraging girls and minorities to pursue STEM education and careers.

Places to connect if you’d like to get an engineer to come speak in your classroom(keep in mind, most of these organizations have local chapters, so the national organization should be able to put you in touch with the local chapter if you don’t find them with a google search…):

American Society of Civil Engineers

American Society of Mechanical Engineers

Institute of Electronic and Electrical Engineers

American Institute of Chemical Engineers

 

STEMxm Episode 17- 
Environmental Engineer & WW Ops Expert, Stacy Passaro
This is the 1st episode in a series on water and wastewater careers. Check out the others here:
Stacy Passaro is an environmental engineer based out of Maryland. She has extensive water and wastewater treatment process design experience. Over time, she developed special expertise in the operations of treatment systems. Stacy now owns and runs her own engineering consulting firms.
Where Stacy went to school
Topics we discussed:
Here's a good pageon the EPA site to help you understand why nutrients in water are bad.
Learn more about nutrient pollution specific to the Chesapeake Bay here.
Learn about Algal Blooms hereandhere.
Learn about the importance of aquatic bay grasses hereand here.
STEMxm Episode 18- 
Environmental Engineer & Master Planning Expert, Kristiana Dragash
This is the 2nd episode in a series on water and wastewater careers. Check out the others here:
Kristiana Dragash is a licensed professional environmental engineering consultant for Carollo. She has special expertise in municipal water and wastewater master planning, as well as hydraulic modeling. At the time of recording this podcast, Kristiana works for Carollo Engineer and also serves as the Vice-President of the Florida Water Environment Association.
STEMxm Episode 19- 
Environmental Engineer & Drinking Water Expert, Emilie Moore
This is the 3rd episode in a series on water and wastewater careers. Check out the others here:
Emilie Moore is an Environmental Engineer with expertise in drinking water treatment process design. Emilie has a BS in Environmental Engineering from the University of Floridaand a Masters in Engineering Management from the University of Kansas.  She currently works as a Senior Project Manager and Area Manager for Tetra Tech. She performs water supply planning, water treatment design, water distribution system design, wastewater collection system design, and wastewater treatment process design.
Here are some of the things mentioned on this episode that you might be interested in learning more about...
Drinking Water Treatment Processes

Other stuff

 

STEMxm Episode 20- 
Green Infrastructure and Stormwater Management, Bethany Bezak
This is the 4th episode in a series on water and wastewater careers. Check out the others here:
Where Bethany earned her BS - Lawrence Technological University
Where Bethany earned her MS - Virginia Tech University
Terminology:

 

STEMxm is available on iTunes & Stitcher:itunes logo

STEMxm Episode 21- 
Environmental Water Quality with Tracy Fanara, PhD
This is the 5th episode in a series on water and wastewater careers. Check out the others here:

 

Tracy Fanara's profile on The Science Channel

Q&Awith Tracy

Stuff we chatted about...

STEMxm Episode 23 - 
Atmospheric Physics with Dr. Joanna Haigh
This is the 2nd episode in a series touching on climate change careers and research. Check out the others here:
Dr. Joanna Haighhas been Co-Director of the Grantham Institute at Imperial College since 2014. For the previous 5 years she was Head of the Department of Physics. Joanna's scientific interests include radiative transfer in the atmosphere, climate modelling, radiative forcing of climate change and the influence of solar irradiance variability on climate. She has published widely on these topics in the scientific literature and also contributed to numerous items to the written and broadcast popular media. She has been President of the Royal Meteorological Society, Editor of Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society and of the Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, a Lead Author on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and acted on many UK and international panels.  She is a Fellow of the Royal Society, the Institute of Physics, the City & Guilds and the Royal Meteorological Society and an Honorary Fellow of Somerville College Oxford.  She was awarded the Institute of Physics Charles Chree Medal and Prize 2004, the Royal Meteorological Society Adrian Gill Prize 2010 and appointed CBE in the 2013 New Years Honours.
Articles featuring Dr. Haigh
Discussion Topics:
STEMxm Episode 24 - 
Theoretical Ecology with Emily Moberg, PhD
This is the 2nd episode in a series touching on climate change careers and research. Check out the others here:
Stuff we talked about
Where Emily went to school/did research
STEMxm Episode 25 - 
Ocean Corals and Climate Change with Jessica Carilli, PhD
This is the 2nd episode in a series touching on climate change careers and research. Check out the others here:
Where Jessica earned a PhD - Scripps Institution of Oceanography
Stuff we discussed
 -- How are scientists able to "go back in time" to study how the environment was on earth many years ago?
  • Ocean floor core sampling
  • Tree rings as a way to understand the environment in years past (Dendrochronology) - This audio clip is an excellent explanation of how scientists use tree rings in combination other data to perform dating: listen here
  • Ice corpsfrom Greenland and Antarctica
  • Corals also have annual layers they grow through time. You can use these similarly
  • We also spoke with Dr. Holmes in episode 14about core sampling!

How do scientists date this stuff? Radiometric clocks!

Now Corals...

 

STEMxm Episode 26 - 
Paleo-Oceanography with Jennifer Walker
This is the 4th episode in a series touching on climate change careers and research. Check out the others here:

Envirothon- Environmental resources research competition for highschoolers

Related Headline: Sea level rise in 20th century was fastest in 3,000 years, Rutgers-led study finds

Rutgers Department websitewhere Jennifer is completing a PhD

 

Research concepts discussed with Jennifer on episode 26

  • Proxy- "In paleoclimatology, or the study of past climates, scientists use what is known as proxy data to reconstruct past climate conditions. These proxy data are preserved physical characteristics of the environment that can stand in for direct measurements. Paleoclimatologists gather proxy data from natural recorders of climate variability such as tree rings, ice cores, fossil pollen, ocean sediments, corals and historical data. By analyzing records taken from these and other proxy sources, scientists can extend our understanding of climate far beyond the instrumental record."
  • Foraminiferaare a species that are used as proxy indicators for scientists like Jennifer to study historic sea level changes. "Foraminifera (forams for short) are single-celled protists with shells. Their shells are also referred to as tests because in some forms the protoplasm covers the exterior of the shell. The shells are commonly divided into chambers which are added during growth, though the simplest forms are open tubes or hollow spheres. Depending on the species, the shell may be made of organic compounds, sand grains and other particles cemented together, or crystalline calcite." You can read a peer-reviewed article about that here.
  • Sediment Stratigraphy- "The branch of geology that seeks to understand the geometric relationships between different rock layers (called strata), and to interpret the history represented by these rock layers."
  • Marsh- "A marsh is a type of wetland, an area of land where water covers ground for long periods of time. Unlike swamps, which are dominated by trees, marshes are usually treeless and dominated by grasses and other herbaceous plants.
    • Herbaceous plants have no woody stem above ground, and they grow and die back on a regular cycle. Herbaceous plants can be annuals (which grow anew every year), biennials (which take two years to complete their life cycle), or perennials (which take more than two years to complete their life cycle.)
    • Marsh grasses and other herbaceous plants grow in the waterlogged but rich soil deposited by rivers. The plants roots bind to the muddy soil and slow the water flow, encouraging the spread of the marsh. These watery pastures are rich in biodiversity.
    • There are three types of marshes: tidal salt marshes, tidal freshwater marshes, and inland freshwater marshes. Marshes are also common in deltas, where rivers empty into a larger body of water. Although all are waterlogged and dominated by herbaceous plants, they each have unique ecosystems."
  • Glacial isostatic adjustment- the ongoing movement of land once burdened by ice-age glaciers.
STEMxm Episode 27 - 
Laboratory Research without a PhD, Rosa Hoyle

"Forget about what you think people are thinking about you, and just try your hardest. That's the wonderful thing about science. People respect hard work and your results talk a lot more than your appearance... What people really care about in science is what you're publishing, what you're giving to the scientific community..." -Rosa Hoyle

Rosa's LinkedIn Profile

The laboratory Rosa works in is Dr. David Holtzman's Neuroscience Lab which is studying Alzheimers disease. Here are a few of the major items we discussed:

Ted Talk about Alzheimers that Mel mentioned: click here